Historia saksofonu

Historia saksofonu rozpoczęła się najprawdopodobniej w roku 1841, kiedy to przygotowany na wystawę instrumentów w Brukseli pakunek ktoś kopnął w niewyjaśnionych okolicznościach. Pogięty i zniszczony instrument nie nadawał się  do prezentacji. Sądząc z opisów, pakunek zawierał nowy, skonstruowany niedawno instrument – saksofon.

Pierwsza wzmianka o saksofonie, autorstwa Hektora Berlioza, ukazała się 12 czerwca 1842 roku w paryskim Journal des Debats i ta data została przyjęta za metrykę powstania saksofonu, chociaż instrument miał swoją publiczną premierę 3 lutego 1844 r., a opatentowany został dopiero 28 czerwca roku 1846. Saksofon (Le Saxophon), nazywany po jego wynalazcy, był instrumentem z grupy dętych drewnianych. Miał dziewiętnaście klap, co uczyniło go podobnym do instrumentu ophicleide.

Ustnik, w przeciwieństwie do ustników instrumentów dętych blaszanych, był podobny do ustnika klarnetu basowego. Co ciekawe, pierwszym opisywanym saksofonem był saksofon basowy w stroju C; dopiero później, z konieczności nadania większej ruchliwości, Adolf Sax skonstruował baryton, alt, tenor i sopran – mniejsze odmiany saksofonu.
Skala pierwszego saksofonu była o siedem dźwięków większa niż późniejsze modele, które Sax przebudował ze względu na gorsze możliwości brzmieniowe najwyższych dźwięków prototypu.

Wiosną 1843 roku rozpoczął produkcję instrumentów blaszanych z nowym mechanizmem obrotowym, zamiast tłokowym. W listopadzie 1843 roku, podczas wystawienia opery Don Sebastian Donizettiego, muzycy odmówili wykonania partii klarnetu basowego na instrumencie zrobionym przez Saxa. Sax zadeklarował, że wykona ją osobiście, ale muzycy zagrozili strajkiem. Sax wspólnie z Donizettim musieli ustąpić.

Wkrótce po premierze pierwszego saksofonu Adolf Sax zademonstrował swoje instrumenty w Konserwatorium Paryskim, gdzie słuchali go znani wówczas muzycy i kompozytorzy: Auber (sławny wówczas  kompozytor La Muette de Portici – opery wykonywanej w Brukseli 21 września 1830, będącej sygnałem dla Rewolucji Belgijskiej), Halévy, Habeneck, Monnais i inni, którzy chwalili Saxa za nowatorstwo i muzykalność. Po sukcesie prezentacji Sax otworzył warsztat w Paryżu przy ulicy Saint Georges 10, gdzie zabrał się energicznie do pracy, nader często jednak popadając w konflikty z zatrudnianymi rzemieślnikami. Na siedemnastego i dwudziestego pierwszego czerwca przypadają daty pierwszych francuskich patentów saksofonowych.

 Na początku 1844 roku warsztat Saxa odwiedził Rossi, który urzeczony brzmieniem saksofonu sprowadził go do Konserwatorium w Bolonii. Najwierniejszym zwolennikiem saksofonu i talentu Saxa był jednak Hektor Berlioz – gorący propagator nowego instrumentu, konsekwentnie wszędzie tam, gdzie koncertował.

Latem 1844 saksofon został pokazany na Paris Industrial Exhibision i prezentowany wobec Króla Louisa Phollippe i Królowej Marie Amelie.

Od roku 1844 warsztat Saxa odwiedzała śmietanka życia muzycznego, literackiego i społecznego Paryża. Przy każdej okazji Sax demonstrował możliwości swoich instrumentów, podczas improwizowanych koncertów. W tym samym roku Sax otworzył filię fabryki w Anglii, a wkrótce po tym jego młodszy brat Henry wyemigrował do Ameryki, gdzie założył manufakturę instrumentów dętych w Filadelfii. Latem 1844 saksofon został pokazany na Paris Industrial Exhibision i prezentowany wobec Króla Louisa Phollippe i Królowej Marie Amelie.

Rok 1845 okazał się przełomowy w życiu Adolfa Saxa. Dopiero teraz zaczęła przełamywać się stopniowa niechęć muzyków i środowiska konstruktorów instrumentów. Chociaż nadal miał wielu wrogów, stopniowo pokonywał zniechęcenie do swojej osoby. Budził olbrzymie kontrowersje, nazywając grupę saxhornów swoim nazwiskiem (protestowali niemieccy konstruktorzy: Stolzel i Blumel). W tym samym roku Sax otworzył filię fabryki w Anglii, a wkrótce po tym jego młodszy brat Henry wyemigrował do Ameryki, gdzie w Filadelfii założył manufakturę instrumentów dętych .

W 1858 roku Sax został  kierownikiem klasy saksofonu przy Konserwatorium Paryskim, w którym nauczał przez trzynaście lat.

Po okresie prosperity, kilkanaście lat po premierze saksofonu, kariera Saxa podupadła. Doszło do tego, że Cesarz Napoleon III ratował go od bankructwa.

W roku 1870 rząd rozwiązał klasę. Do końca życia żył w biedzie, na emeryturze ustanowionej przez rząd. Zmarł w siódmego lutego 1894 roku.

Ważniejsze daty z historii saksofonu

Created by Robert Faub, Assistant Professor of Saxophone, Crane School
(1990-1997). Compiled by Andrew Stoker, John Jeanneret, Rebecca Blow &
Jay Metcalf, Spring 1996.

1814 – Antoine-Joseph (Adolphe) Sax born 6 November, Dinant, Belgium, studies instrument-making with his father, Charles-Joseph (1791-1865)
1834 – Adolphe Sax perfects bass-clarinet design; *improves keywork and construction
1842 – Sax arrives in Paris
1842 – 12 June–Sax’s close friend Hector Berlioz writes article in Paris magazine Journal des Debats describing Sax’s newest invention–the saxophone
1844 – 3 February–Berlioz conducts concert which features an arrangement of his choral work Chant Sacre which includes saxophone
1844 – December–Saxophone makes its orchestral debut in Georges Kastner’s opera Last King of Juda; Paris Conservatory
1845 – Sax re-tools military band by replacing oboe, bassoons, and french horns with saxhorns in Bb and Eb, producing a more homogenous sound, his idea is a success
1845 – Georges Kastner–Variations Faciles et Brillante for solo saxophone; Sextour for 2 soprano, alto, bass and contrabass saxophones
1846 – Sax granted patent for saxophone
1847 – 14 February–Saxophone school set up at „Gymnase Musical”–a military band school in Paris
1858 – Sax becomes Professor of Saxophone at Paris Conservatory
1858 – Jean-Baptiste Singelee (b. Brussels 1812-d. Ostend 1875)–writes first two Paris Conservatory contest solos; Concerto (sop./ten.), Fantaisie (bari.)
1861 – Wagner, in lieu of 12 French Horns, uses saxophones and saxhorns in the orchestra pit at the premiere of his opera Tannhauser
1862 – Jules Demerssemann (b. Belgium 1833, d. Paris 1866)–Fantaisie sur un Theme Originale (ded. to Henri Wuille, alto)
1866 – Sax patent expires–Millereau Co. patents Saxophone-Millereau, which features a forked F# key
1867 – Nazaire Beeckman becomes Professor of Saxophone at Brussels Conservatory
1868 – Gautrot, Pierre Louis & Co.–devises screw-in pad system and mechanism inside pad cup to keep outside of pad flat
1871 – Gustav Poncelet becomes Professor of Saxophone at Brussels Conservatory after Beeckman
1875 – Goumas–patented saxophone with fingering system similar to Boehm system clarinet
1877 – Hyacinthe Klose–Methode Complete de Saxophone ; Klose–Methode Elementaire (alto/tenor)
1879 – Klose–Methode Elementaire (baritone) Georges Bizet–L’Arlesienne Suites No. 1&2
1881 – Klose–Methode Elementaire (sop.)
1881 – Jules Massenet–Herodiade
1881 – Sax extends his original patent–lengthens bell to include low Bb and A; also extends upward range to F# and G with use of fourth octave key
1885 – First saxophone built in U.S. from Sax patent by Gus Buescher
1886 – Association Des Ouvriers–devise right hand C trill key, and a half-tone system for first fingers of left and right hands
1887 – Association Des Ouvriers–invent tuning ring, and precursor of articulated G# Evette and Schaeffer–improve on articulated G# so that G# key can be held down while any finger of the right hand is being used, improved forked F#, invented „bis” key, added low Bb
1888 – Lecomte–invents single octave key, rollers for low Eb-C
1892 – Jules Massenet–Werther
1894 – Sax dies
1896 – Eugene Coffin plays on earliest Columbia saxophone recordings
1897 – Creation of Storyville
1901 – 29 January, Charles Loeffler’s Divertisment espanol is premiered by Elise Hall in Boston’s Copley Hall (first work commissioned by E. Hall)
1901 – Elise Hall commissions Claude Debussy to write saxophone work
1903 – Symphonia Domestica by Richard Strauss. Score includes saxophones keyed in F & C: sopr., alto (mezzo), bari., bass. *Part now exists as obbligato section for instruments keyed in Bb and Eb.
1903 – Elise Hall commissions Choral Varie by Vincent d’Indy
1904 – 4 January, premiere of Choral Varie by E. Hall in Copley Hall, Boston
1904 – 21 March, World Premiere of Richard Strauss’ Symphonia Domestica in Carnegie Hall, New York City
1906 – 2 January, Elise Hall premieres Legend for saxophone and orchestra by Georges Sprok
1908 – Paul de Ville’s Universal Method for saxophone first published by Carl Fischer
1911 – Henri Woollett’s Siberia – Poeme Symphonique is premiered by Elise Hall
1911 – Tom Brown and the Brown Brothers saxophone sextet popularize saxophone with American public with recordings of such songs as: Bullfrog Blues, Chicken Walk, et.al.
1914 – Rudy Wiedoeft makes his first saxophone record
1916 – Charles Ives writes saxophone part in Symphony No. 4 (premiere of work is much later)
1917 – *Bela Bartok’s The Wooden Prince is premiered; score includes alto and tenor saxes
1917 – Benjamin Vereecken’s Foundation of Saxophone Playing published by Carl Fischer
1918 – Percy Grainger uses saxophone for the first time in Children’s March (sopr. alto, tenor, bari., and bass)
1919 – *11 March, premiere of Debussy’s Rapsodie Yves Mayeur, soloist
1922 – Saxophone used in Mussorgsky/Ravel Pictures at an Exhibition
1923 – Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin (2 altos, tenor)
1923 – Darius Milhaud writes for saxophone in Le creation du monde
1924 – Elise Hall dies
1926 – Puccini’s Turandot includes saxophone part in score
1926 – 31 January, first performance of serious saxophone literature in New York City’s Aeolian Hall by Jascha Gurewich (1896-1938)
1927 – Ravel uses saxophone in his Bolero (sopranissimo, soprano, tenor)
1927 – Job by Ralph Vaughan Williams (alto)
1928 – An American in Paris by George Gershwin (alto, tenor, bari)
1928 – Symphony No. 1 Aaron Copland (alto)
1928 – Marcel Mule establishes quartet along with members of the Garde Republicaine de Paris
1929 – Sigfrid Karg-Elert (1877-1933) composes 25 Caprices for Saxophone
1932 – Harvey Pittel is born on June 22
1932 – Eugene Rousseau is born in Blue Island, Illinois on August 23
1932 – Jean-Marie Londeix is born in Libourne, France on September 20
1933 – *Marcel Mule premieres Legend by Florent Schmitt (written for Elise Hall)
1935 – Frederick Hemke is born on July 11
1935 – Marcel Mule premieres Pierre Vellones’ Concerto in November 16
1935 – Sigurd Rascher premieres (in entirety) Concertino da Camera by Jacques Ibert on December 11
1936 – Eugene Bozza composes Aria for alto saxophone
1937 – Cecil Leeson gives first performance of the Glazunov Concerto on February 5
1937 – Larry Teal premieres the Bernhard Heiden Sonata on April 8
1937 – Donald Sinta is born in Detroit, MI on June 16
1937 – James M. Stoltie born in Galesburg, Ill. on July 10
1938 – Jascha Gurewich dies (known as composer of various saxophone works)
1939 – Jamey Aebersold is born on July 21 (known as a jazz pedagogue and influential to jazz saxophone practice techniques, as well as other instruments)
1939 – Arnold Brillhart begins design and production of mouthpieces (also known as jazz saxophonist)
1939 – Paul Creston (*Joseph Guttovegio) composes Sonata for Cecil Leesson
1939 – Paul Hindemith composes Sonata (adapted by composer for alto sax & piano)
1940 – Saxophonist Rudy Wiedoeft dies in Queens, NY on February 18
1941 – Top Tones, by Sigurd Rascher is released as a study to saxophone altissimo register
1942 – Stan Getz (1927-1991) begins playing as a professional saxophonist
1942 – Classical Tenor saxophonist pioneer James Houlik is born in Bay Shore, NY on December 4
1942 – Pierre Lantier composes Andante et Scherzetto for saxophone quartet
1942 – Marcel Mule is appointed Professor of Saxophone at the Paris Conservatory
1943 – 18 Berbiguier Exercises is published by Mule
1944 – Eugene Bozza publishes Improvisation et Caprice for solo saxophone (used of different instruments previously)
1946 – 48 Ferling Etudes is reissued through Marcel Mule
1948 – Japanese saxophonist and composer Ryo Noda is born in Amagasaki, Japan on October 17
1948 – Heitor Villa-Lobos composes Fantasia Op. 630 for Marcel Mule
1949 – Jazz saxophonists Gerry Mulligan and Lee Konitz are released along with other artists on Miles Davis’ album Birth of the Cool
1950 – Lynn Klock, Prof at Univ. of Mass. Amherst, is born on August 12
1951 – Rueff Concerto is premiered in the Solos de Concours in Paris
1953 – Daniel Deffayet debuts as saxophone soloist (succeeds Mule at the Paris Conservatory in 1968)
1953 – Larry Teal is appointed Professor of Saxophone at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor *becoming the first American public university, tenure-track appointment; founds doctoral program
1954 – The Selmer Mark VI Saxophone begins to be produced
1955 – Charlie „Bird” Parker dies in New York City on March 12
1956 – Alfred Desenclos composes Prelude, Cadence et Finale for the Paris Solos de Concours
1956 – *Dubois Quatour
1956 – Frederick Hemke is first American saxophonist to win Premiere Prix de Saxophone at the Paris Conservatory
1956 – Laura Hunter is born June 13 (student of Donald Sinta and J.M. Londeix)
1957 – Saxophone Colossus released by jazz tenor man Sonny Rollins
1958 – John Coltrane is jazz tenor saxophonist and quartet leader on the album, Giant Steps
1958 – Erland von Koch composes Concerto for alto saxophone and orchestra for Sigurd Rascher
1959 – „Take Five” a Paul Desmond composition is released on the album featuring the Dave Brubeck Quartet, Time Out
1959 – Paule Maurice composes Tableaux de Provence
1959 – Jazz tenor legend Lester Young dies in New York on March 15
1960 – Joseph Lulloff, prof of sax at Michigan State University, is born
1961 – Percy Grainger dies, February 2
1961 – Walter Hartley’s Petite Suite written for Hemke
1962 – Eugene Rousseau studies with Marcel Mule
1963 – The Art of Saxophone Playing is published by Larry Teal
1963 – Fred Hemke is appointed to Northwestern Univ. staff
1964 – John Coltrane’s A Love Supreme issued
1967 – Coltrane dies, July 17
1967 – DiPasquale Sonata is published for Tenor Sax (Southern Music)
1967 – Hartley writes and publishes Poem and Sonatina for James Houlik
1968 – Mule retires from Paris Conservatory, Deffayet takes over
1968 – Leslie Bassett’s Music for Alto Saxophone and Piano is published (Peters)
1968 – Saxophonist James Stoltie hired at SUNY Potsdam’s Crane School of Music
1969 – Rascher Quartet is formed – Sigurd and Carina Rascher, Bruce Weinberger and Linda Bangs
1969 – M.W. Karlins Music for Tenor Saxophone is written for Hemke
1969 – Heiden Solo written for Rousseau
1969 – May 19, Coleman Hawkins dies
1969 – December – 1st World Saxophone Congress Meeting, Chicago; organized by Brodie/Rousseau; *Donald Sinta elected Chairman
1970 – December – Trent Kynaston (prof of sax at Western Mich. Univ.) premieres Muczynki’s Sonata Op. 29
1970 – 2nd World Saxophone Congress Meeting, Chicago
*1970 – Edison Denisov writes Sonata for J.M. Londeix
1971 – Rosemary Lang altissimo studies published
1971 – Noda Improvisation I written for Londeix
1971 – Saxophone Concertos (Eugene Rousseau) record issued on Deutches Grammophon; reissued in CD 1998
1971 – 3rd WSC Meeting in Toronto
1972 – Daily Studies Teal
1973 – Nov. 8, Harvey Pittel makes Carnegie Hall debut
1973 – Fourth WSC Meeting in Bordeaux, France
1974 – Larry Teal retires from the University of Michigan, Donald Sinta takes over
1974 – *Ross Lee Finney composes Concerto for alto saxophone and orchestra of wind instruments for Teal’s retirement. Premiered by Sinta
1975 – Milhaud dies
1975 – Cannonball Adderly dies
1976 – Mark VII introduced with standard high F# key
1976 – Selmer’s square-chamber mouthpieces marketed
1977 – 30 May, Desmond dies
1977 – Rascher’s last performance
1978 – Houlik makes Carnegie Hall debut
1978 – *Lynn Klock makes Carnegie Hall debut
1978 – Merle Johnston (b. 1897 Watertown, NY) dies (revolutionized pedagogy in the US)
1979 – James Forger premieres John Anthony Lennon’s Distances Within Me
1980 – Yamaha introduces 62 series
1980 – *Laura Hunter makes Carnegie Hall debut
1981 – Selmer S80 introduced
1981 – Kynaston premieres Muczynki’s Concerto op. 41
1981 – Rascher retires
1981 – Houlik performs in Alice Tully Hall
1982 – Claude Delangle becomes Professor at the CNRM at Boulogne-Billancourt
1982 – Saxophone Sinfonia appears in Alice Tully Hall (D. Bilger, dir.)
1982 – 7th WSC in Nuremburg, Germany
1983 – *Amercian saxophonist Steven Jordheim wins Silver Medal (top prize) at the Geneva International Competition
1984 – William Albright Sonata written for Wytko, Sinta, and Hunter
1984 – Larry Teal dies
1984 – *John Harle makes Carnegie Hall debut
1985 – *Paul Creston dies
1985 – Joe Lulloff makes Carnegie Hall debut
1985 – Laura Hunter premieres Albright Sonata
1986 – Selmer S80 Series II introduced
1987 – *Kenneth Radnofsky premieres Donald Martino’s Concerto in New Hampshire
1988 – *Claude Delangle becomes Professor of Saxophone at the Paris Conservatory
1988 – *John Sampen premieres Morton Subotnick’s In Two Worlds in London
1991 – Stan Getz dies
1993 – *Timothy McAllister and Donell Synder share 1st Prize in the NASA Young Artist Competition, Fairfax, VA
1994 – *Taimur Sullivan wins 1st Prize in the NASA Young Artist Competition, Morgantown, WV
1995 – Londeix performs farewell concert

1995 – Marie Bernadette Charrier succeeds Londeix at the Bourdeaux Conservatory
1995 – Lennie Pickett named Musical Director of Saturday Night Live
1996 – Panic by Sir Harrison Birtwistle is premiered by John Harle at the Last Night of the BBC Proms
1996 – Gerry Mulligan dies
1996 – Kevin Towner wins 1st Prize in the NASA Young Artist Competition at the 2nd Biennial NASA Conference
1997 – 11th World Saxophone Congress in Italy
1997 – Timothy McAllister makes Carnegie Hall debut as soloist for the University of Michigan Band Centennial Anniversary Tour
1997 – Chris Potter wins Jazz Par Prize
1997 – Joshua Redman wins Thelonious Monk Competition
1998 – 3rd Biennial Meeting of NASA, Scotty Stepp wins 1st Prize in NASA Young Artist Competition
1998 – William Albright dies
1999 – Concert Suite by William Bolcom is premiered by Donald Sinta
1999 – Timothy McAllister makes Carnegie Hall recital debut
1999 – Branford Marsalis releases Requiem
2000 – Bernhard Heiden dies
2000 – 12th World Saxophone Congress in Montreal, Ontario, CANADA
2000 – 4th Biennial Meeting of NASA, Jacob Chmara wins 1st Prize in NASA Young Artist Competition
2000 – Gregory Wanamaker’s Sonata deus sax machina is premiered by McAllister and pianist David Heinick at 12th World Congress
2000 – Eugene Rousseau retires from Indiana University, begins teaching at University of Minnesota
2000 – James Stoltie retires from The Crane School of Music as Dean
2000 – Jean-Marie Londeix: Master of the Modern Saxophone by James Umble is published
2001 – Sigurd Rascher dies
2001 – Marcel Mule celebrates 100th birthday
2001 – Marcel Mule dies (December)
2001 – Joe Henderson dies
2001 – ninth circle saxophone quartet wins Grand Prize in the Fischoff Chamber Music Competition
2001 – Otis Murphy appointed to the faculty of Indiana University
2001 – Timothy McAllister and Crane Wind Ensemble, Timothy Topolewski, cond., receive three first-round Grammy nominations for their recording of William Bolcom’s Concert Suite
2001 – Chris Potter releases Gratitude
2002 – 5th Biennial Meeting of NASA, Robert White-Davis wins 1st Prize in NASA Young Artist Competition
2002 – Nick Brignola dies
2002 – America’s Tribute to Adolphe Sax, Vols. 1-7 is released in box set. (AUR)
2002 – Pearl Mox Saxophone Quartet wins Crane Chamber Music Competition

Created by Robert Faub, Assistant Professor of Saxophone, Crane School
(1990-1997). Compiled by Andrew Stoker, John Jeanneret, Rebecca Blow &
Jay Metcalf, Spring 1996.

Fot. tytułowa: Matt Clark/Flickr, na licencji CC BY 2.0

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